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Sharing science to find answers

Find RECOVER Publications

Researchers within the RECOVER Initiative share their progress to understand, treat, and prevent Long COVID through research publications. Follow the latest science from RECOVER’s research studies below.

Visit the Research Summaries page to learn about RECOVER’s Long COVID research in a format that’s easy to understand.

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53 Results

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53 Results

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EHR Adult
Yoo, YJ; Wilkins, KJ; Alakwaa, F; et. al. N3C and RECOVER Consortia, Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Published:
Journal: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Abstract: AKI is associated with mortality in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, its incidence, geographic distribution, and temporal trends since the start of the pandemic are understudied. Electronic health record data were obtained from 53 health systems in the United States in the National COVID Cohort Collaborative. We selected hospitalized adults diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 6, 2020, and January 6, 2022. AKI was determined with serum creatinine and… Continue reading
Authors: Yun J Yoo, Kenneth J Wilkins, Fadhl Alakwaa, Feifan Liu, Luke A Torre-Healy, Spencer Krichevsky, Stephanie S Hong, Ankit Sakhuja, Chetan K Potu, Joel H Saltz, Rajiv Saran, Richard L Zhu, Soko Setoguchi, Sandra L Kane-Gill, Sandeep K Mallipattu, Yongqun He, David H Ellison, James B Byrd, Chirag R Parikh, Richard A Moffitt, Farrukh M Koraishy,
Keywords: Adult; Humans; COVID-19/complications/epidemiology; Retrospective Studies; Creatinine; Risk Factors; Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis; Hospital Mortality
EHR Pediatric
Lorman, V; Razzaghi, H; Song, X; et. al., PLOS ONE
Published:
Journal: PLOS ONE
Abstract: As clinical understanding of pediatric Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS CoV-2 (PASC) develops, and hence the clinical definition evolves, it is desirable to have a method to reliably identify patients who are likely to have post-acute sequelae of SARS CoV-2 (PASC) in health systems data. In this study, we developed and validated a machine learning algorithm to classify which patients have PASC (distinguishing between Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) and non-MIS-C variants) from… Continue reading
Authors: Vitaly Lorman, Hanieh Razzaghi, Xing Song, Keith Morse, Levon Utidjian, Andrea J Allen, Suchitra Rao, Colin Rogerson, Tellen D Bennett, Hiroki Morizono, Daniel Eckrich, Ravi Jhaveri, Yungui Huang, Daksha Ranade, Nathan Pajor, Grace M Lee, Christopher B Forrest, L Charles Bailey
Keywords: Child; Humans; Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome; COVID-19/diagnosis; SARS-CoV-2; Disease Progression; Machine Learning; Phenotype
Observational Cohorts Adult
Summary
Thaweethai, T; Jolley, SE; Karlson, EW; et. al.RECOVER Consortium, JAMA
Published:
Journal: JAMA
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with persistent, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects occurring after acute infection, termed postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), also known as long COVID. Characterizing PASC requires analysis of prospectively and uniformly collected data from diverse uninfected and infected individuals.
Authors: Tanayott Thaweethai, Sarah E Jolley, Elizabeth W Karlson, Emily B Levitan, Bruce Levy, Grace A McComsey, Lisa McCorkell, Girish N Nadkarni, Sairam Parthasarathy, Upinder Singh, Tiffany A Walker, Caitlin A Selvaggi, Daniel J Shinnick, Carolin C M Schulte, Rachel Atchley-Challenner, George A Alba, Radica Alicic, Natasha Altman, Khamal Anglin, Urania Argueta, Hassan Ashktorab, Gaston Baslet, Ingrid V Bassett, Lucinda Bateman, Brahmchetna Bedi, Shamik Bhattacharyya, Marie-Abele Bind, Andra L Blomkalns, Hector Bonilla, Patricia A Bush, Mario Castro, James Chan, Alexander W Charney, Peter Chen, Lori B Chibnik, Helen Y Chu, Rebecca G Clifton, Maged M Costantine, Sushma K Cribbs, Sylvia I Davila Nieves, Steven G Deeks, Alexandria Duven, Ivette F Emery, Nathan Erdmann, Kristine M Erlandson, Kacey C Ernst, Rachael Farah-Abraham, Cheryl E Farner, Elen M Feuerriegel, Judes Fleurimont, Vivian Fonseca, Nicholas Franko, Vivian Gainer, Jennifer C Gander, Edward M Gardner, Linda N Geng, Kelly S Gibson, Minjoung Go, Jason D Goldman, Halle Grebe, Frank L Greenway, Mounira Habli, John Hafner, Jenny E Han, Keith A Hanson, James Heath, Carla Hernandez, Rachel Hess, Sally L Hodder, Matthew K Hoffman, Susan E Hoover, Beatrice Huang, Brenna L Hughes, Prasanna Jagannathan, Janice John, Michael R Jordan, Stuart D Katz, Elizabeth S Kaufman, John D Kelly, Sara W Kelly, Megan M Kemp, John P Kirwan, Jonathan D Klein, Kenneth S Knox, Jerry A Krishnan, Andre Kumar, Adeyinka O Laiyemo, Allison A Lambert, Margaret Lanca, Joyce K Lee-Iannotti, Brian P Logarbo, Michele T Longo, Carlos A Luciano, Karen Lutrick, Jason H Maley, Jai G Marathe, Vincent Marconi, Gailen D Marshall, Christopher F Martin, Yuri Matusov, Alem Mehari, Hector Mendez-Figueroa, Robin Mermelstein, Torri D Metz, Richard Morse, Jarrod Mosier, Christian Mouchati, Janet Mullington, Shawn N Murphy, Robert B Neuman, Janko Z Nikolich, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Elizabeth Ojemakinde, Anna Palatnik, Kristy Palomares, Tanyalak Parimon, Samuel Parry, Jan E Patterson, Thomas F Patterson, Rachel E Patzer, Michael J Peluso, Priscilla Pemu, Christian M Pettker, Beth A Plunkett, Kristen Pogreba-Brown, Athena Poppas, John G Quigley, Uma Reddy, Rebecca Reece, Harrison Reeder, W B Reeves, Eric M Reiman, Franz Rischard, Jonathan Rosand, Dwight J Rouse, Adam Ruff, George Saade, Grecio J Sandoval, Shannon M Schlater, Fitzgerald Shepherd, Zaki A Sherif, Hyagriv Simhan, Nora G Singer, Daniel W Skupski, Amber Sowles, Jeffrey A Sparks, Fatima I Sukhera, Barbara S Taylor, Larissa Teunis, Robert J Thomas, John M Thorp, Paul Thuluvath, Amberly Ticotsky, Alan T Tita, Katherine R Tuttle, Alfredo E Urdaneta, Daisy Valdivieso, Timothy M VanWagoner, Andrew Vasey, Monica Verduzco-Gutierrez, Zachary S Wallace, Honorine D Ward, David E Warren, Steven J Weiner, Shelley Welch, Sidney W Whiteheart, Zanthia Wiley, Juan P Wisnivesky, Lynn M Yee, Sokratis Zisis, Leora I Horwitz, Andrea S Foulkes,
Keywords: Female; Adult; Humans; Middle Aged; Male; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19/complications; Prospective Studies; Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome; Cohort Studies; Disease Progression; Fatigue
Short Summary

RECOVER researchers used data from the RECOVER observational cohort study in adults ages 18 and over. They compared symptoms reported in surveys by participants who did and did not have COVID.  

Researchers found 37 symptoms that participants who had COVID reported more often after having COVID compared to participants who never had COVID. 12 of these symptoms could identify participants with Long COVID, including feeling tired and unwell after activity, feeling weak and tired (fatigue), and brain fog. A definition of Long COVID based on symptoms is important for future research, including to find treatments. 

Observational Cohorts Adult
Horwitz, LI; Thaweethai, T; Brosnahan, SB; et. al., PLOS ONE
Published:
Journal: PLOS ONE
Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 infection can result in ongoing, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects after the acute phase of infection; termed post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), or long COVID. The characteristics, prevalence, trajectory and mechanisms of PASC are ill-defined. The objectives of the Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) Multi-site Observational Study of PASC in Adults (RECOVER-Adult) are to: (1) characterize PASC prevalence; (2) characterize the symptoms,… Continue reading
Authors: Leora I Horwitz, Tanayott Thaweethai, Shari B Brosnahan, Mine S Cicek, Megan L Fitzgerald, Jason D Goldman, Rachel Hess, S L Hodder, Vanessa L Jacoby, Michael R Jordan, Jerry A Krishnan, Adeyinka O Laiyemo, Torri D Metz, Lauren Nichols, Rachel E Patzer, Anisha Sekar, Nora G Singer, Lauren E Stiles, Barbara S Taylor, Shifa Ahmed, Heather A Algren, Khamal Anglin, Lisa Aponte-Soto, Hassan Ashktorab, Ingrid V Bassett, Brahmchetna Bedi, Nahid Bhadelia, Christian Bime, Marie-Abele C Bind, Lora J Black, Andra L Blomkalns, Hassan Brim, Mario Castro, James Chan, Alexander W Charney, Benjamin K Chen, Li Qing Chen, Peter Chen, David Chestek, Lori B Chibnik, Dominic C Chow, Helen Y Chu, Rebecca G Clifton, Shelby Collins, Maged M Costantine, Sushma K Cribbs, Steven G Deeks, John D Dickinson, Sarah E Donohue, Matthew S Durstenfeld, Ivette F Emery, Kristine M Erlandson, Julio C Facelli, Rachael Farah-Abraham, Aloke V Finn, Melinda S Fischer, Valerie J Flaherman, Judes Fleurimont, Vivian Fonseca, Emily J Gallagher, Jennifer C Gander, Maria Laura Gennaro, Kelly S Gibson, Minjoung Go, Steven N Goodman, Joey P Granger, Frank L Greenway, John W Hafner, Jenny E Han, Michelle S Harkins, Kristine S P Hauser, James R Heath, Carla R Hernandez, On Ho, Matthew K Hoffman, Susan E Hoover, Carol R Horowitz, Harvey Hsu, Priscilla Y Hsue, Brenna L Hughes, Prasanna Jagannathan, Judith A James, Janice John, Sarah Jolley, S E Judd, Joy J Juskowich, Diane G Kanjilal, Elizabeth W Karlson, Stuart D Katz, J Daniel Kelly, Sara W Kelly, Arthur Y Kim, John P Kirwan, Kenneth S Knox, Andre Kumar, Michelle F Lamendola-Essel, Margaret Lanca, Joyce K Lee-Lannotti, R Craig Lefebvre, Bruce D Levy, Janet Y Lin, Brian P Logarbo, Jennifer K Logue, Michele T Longo, Carlos A Luciano, Karen Lutrick, Shahdi K Malakooti, Gail Mallett, Gabrielle Maranga, Jai G Marathe, Vincent C Marconi, Gailen D Marshall, Christopher F Martin, Jeffrey N Martin, Heidi T May, Grace A McComsey, Dylan McDonald, Hector Mendez-Figueroa, Lucio Miele, Murray A Mittleman, Sindhu Mohandas, Christian Mouchati, Janet M Mullington, Girish N Nadkarni, Erica R Nahin, Robert B Neuman, Lisa T Newman, Amber Nguyen, Janko Z Nikolich, Igho Ofotokun, Princess U Ogbogu, Anna Palatnik, Kristy T S Palomares, Tanyalak Parimon, Samuel Parry, Sairam Parthasarathy, Thomas F Patterson, Ann Pearman, Michael J Peluso, Priscilla Pemu, Christian M Pettker, Beth A Plunkett, Kristen Pogreba-Brown, Athena Poppas, J Zachary Porterfield, John G Quigley, Davin K Quinn, Hengameh Raissy, Candida J Rebello, Uma M Reddy, Rebecca Reece, Harrison T Reeder, Franz P Rischard, Johana M Rosas, Clifford J Rosen, Nadine G Rouphael, Dwight J Rouse, Adam M Ruff, Christina Saint Jean, Grecio J Sandoval, Jorge L Santana, Shannon M Schlater, Frank C Sciurba, Caitlin Selvaggi, Sudha Seshadri, Howard D Sesso, Dimpy P Shah, Eyal Shemesh, Zaki A Sherif, Daniel J Shinnick, Hyagriv N Simhan, Upinder Singh, Amber Sowles, Vignesh Subbian, Jun Sun, Mehul S Suthar, Larissa J Teunis, John M Thorp, Amberly Ticotsky, Alan T N Tita, Robin Tragus, Katherine R Tuttle, Alfredo E Urdaneta, P J Utz, Timothy M VanWagoner, Andrew Vasey, Suzanne D Vernon, Crystal Vidal, Tiffany Walker, Honorine D Ward, David E Warren, Ryan M Weeks, Steven J Weiner, Jordan C Weyer, Jennifer L Wheeler, Sidney W Whiteheart, Zanthia Wiley, Natasha J Williams, Juan P Wisnivesky, John C Wood, Lynn M Yee, Natalie M Young, Sokratis N Zisis, Andrea S Foulkes
Keywords: Humans; COVID-19/epidemiology; Observational Studies as Topic; Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome; Prospective Studies; Retrospective Studies; SARS-CoV-2; Adolescent; Adult; Multicenter Studies as Topic
EHR Pediatric
Summary
Mejias, A; Schuchard, J; Rao, S; et. al., The Journal of Pediatrics
Published:
Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics
Abstract: Using an electronic health record-based algorithm, we identified children with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based exclusively on serologic testing between March 2020 and April 2022. Compared with the 131 537 polymerase chain reaction-positive children, the 2714 serology-positive children were more likely to be inpatients (24% vs 2%), to have a chronic condition (37% vs 24%), and to have a diagnosis of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (23% vs <1%). Identification of… Continue reading
Authors: Asuncion Mejias, Julia Schuchard, Suchitra Rao, Tellen D Bennett, Ravi Jhaveri, Deepika Thacker, L Charles Bailey, Dimitri A Christakis, Nathan M Pajor, Hanieh Razzaghi, Christopher B Forrest, Grace M Lee
Keywords: Humans; Child; COVID-19/complications/diagnosis; Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome; SARS-CoV-2; Cohort Studies; Electronic Health Records; Antibodies, Viral; Disease Progression; COVID-19 Testing
Short Summary

To find another way to know if children had COVID, researchers compared health records of 2 groups of children: children who only had a positive antibody test and children who had a positive PCR test. A positive antibody test means a child had COVID in the past, had the COVID vaccine, or both. A positive PCR test means a child currently has COVID. Researchers used data from children’s hospitals in the National Pediatric Learning Health System (PEDSnet) network.

Antibody tests found 2,714 children who had COVID and didn’t have a positive PCR test or  COVID vaccine. If researchers used only PCR tests, they wouldn’t have known these children had COVID. Knowing if children had COVID is the first step to know their risk of Long COVID and if symptoms could be related to Long COVID.

EHR Adult
Pfaff, ER; Girvin, AT; Crosskey, M; et. al., Journal of American Medical Informatics Association
Published:
Journal: Journal of American Medical Informatics Association
Abstract: Machine learning (ML)-driven computable phenotypes are among the most challenging to share and reproduce. Despite this difficulty, the urgent public health considerations around Long COVID make it especially important to ensure the rigor and reproducibility of Long COVID phenotyping algorithms such that they can be made available to a broad audience of researchers. As part of the NIH Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery (RECOVER) Initiative, researchers with the National COVID Cohort… Continue reading
Authors: Emily R Pfaff, Andrew T Girvin, Miles Crosskey, Srushti Gangireddy, Hiral Master, Wei-Qi Wei, V Eric Kerchberger, Mark Weiner, Paul A Harris, Melissa Basford, Chris Lunt, Christopher G Chute, Richard A Moffitt, Melissa Haendel, N3C and RECOVER Consortia
Keywords: Not available
EHR Adult
Brannock, MD; Chew, RF; Preiss, AJ; et. al., Nature Communications
Published:
Journal: Nature Communications
Abstract: Long COVID, or complications arising from COVID-19 weeks after infection, has become a central concern for public health experts. The United States National Institutes of Health founded the RECOVER initiative to better understand long COVID. We used electronic health records available through the National COVID Cohort Collaborative to characterize the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and long COVID diagnosis. Among patients with a COVID-19 infection between August 1, 2021 and January… Continue reading
Authors: M Daniel Brannock, Robert F Chew, Alexander J Preiss, Emily C Hadley, Signe Redfield, Julie A McMurry, Peter J Leese, Andrew T Girvin, Miles Crosskey, Andrea G Zhou, Richard A Moffitt, Michele Jonsson Funk, Emily R Pfaff, Melissa A Haendel, Christopher G Chute, N3C, RECOVER Consortia
Keywords: United States/epidemiology; Humans; Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome; COVID-19/epidemiology/prevention & control; COVID-19 Vaccines; Cohort Studies; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccination
Observational Cohorts Pediatric
Gross, R; Thaweethai, T; Rosenzweig, EB; et. al., medRxiv
Information
Caution: Preprints are preliminary reports of work that have not been certified by peer review. They should not be relied on to guide clinical practice or health-related behavior and should not be reported in news media as established information.
Published:
Journal: medRxiv
Abstract: The prevalence, pathophysiology, and long-term outcomes of COVID-19 (post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 [PASC] or "Long COVID") in children and young adults remain unknown. Studies must address the urgent need to define PASC, its mechanisms, and potential treatment targets in children and young adults. We describe the protocol for the Pediatric Observational Cohort Study of the NIH's searching ID to nhance ecovery (RECOVER) Initiative. RECOVER-Pediatrics is an observational… Continue reading
Authors: Rachel Gross, Tanayott Thaweethai, Erika B Rosenzweig, James Chan, Lori B Chibnik, Mine S Cicek, Amy J Elliott, Valerie J Flaherman, Andrea S Foulkes, Margot Gage Witvliet, Richard Gallagher, Maria Laura Gennaro, Terry L Jernigan, Elizabeth W Karlson, Stuart D Katz, Patricia A Kinser, Lawrence C Kleinman, Michelle F Lamendola-Essel, Joshua D Milner, Sindhu Mohandas, Praveen C Mudumbi, Jane W Newburger, Kyung E Rhee, Amy L Salisbury, Jessica N Snowden, Cheryl R Stein, Melissa S Stockwell, Kelan G Tantisira, Moriah E Thomason, Dongngan T Truong, David Warburton, John C Wood, Shifa Ahmed, Almary Akerlundh, Akram N Alshawabkeh, Brett R Anderson, Judy L Aschner, Andrew M Atz, Robin L Aupperle, Fiona C Baker, Venkataraman Balaraman, Dithi Banerjee, Deanna M Barch, Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Sultana Bhuiyan, Marie-Abele C Bind, Amanda L Bogie, Natalie C Buchbinder, Elliott Bueler, Hülya Bükülmez, B J Casey, Linda Chang, Duncan B Clark, Rebecca G Clifton, Katharine N Clouser, Lesley Cottrell, Kelly Cowan, Viren D'Sa, Mirella Dapretto, Soham Dasgupta, Walter Dehority, Kirsten B Dummer, Matthew D Elias, Shari Esquenazi-Karonika, Danielle N Evans, E Vincent S Faustino, Alexander G Fiks, Daniel Forsha, John J Foxe, Naomi P Friedman, Greta Fry, Sunanda Gaur, Dylan G Gee, Kevin M Gray, Ashraf S Harahsheh, Andrew C Heath, Mary M Heitzeg, Christina M Hester, Sophia Hill, Laura Hobart-Porter, Travis K F Hong, Carol R Horowitz, Daniel S Hsia, Matthew Huentelman, Kathy D Hummel, William G Iacono, Katherine Irby, Joanna Jacobus, Vanessa L Jacoby, Pei-Ni Jone, David C Kaelber, Tyler J Kasmarcak, Matthew J Kluko, Jessica S Kosut, Angela R Laird, Jeremy Landeo-Gutierrez, Sean M Lang, Christine L Larson, Peter Paul C Lim, Krista M Lisdahl, Brian W McCrindle, Russell J McCulloh, Alan L Mendelsohn, Torri D Metz, Lerraughn M Morgan, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Erica R Nahin, Michael C Neale, Manette Ness-Cochinwala, Sheila M Nolan, Carlos R Oliveira, Matthew E Oster, R Mark Payne, Hengameh Raissy, Isabelle G Randall, Suchitra Rao, Harrison T Reeder, Johana M Rosas, Mark W Russell, Arash A Sabati, Yamuna Sanil, Alice I Sato, Michael S Schechter, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Divya Shakti, Kavita Sharma, Lindsay M Squeglia, Michelle D Stevenson, Jacqueline Szmuszkovicz, Maria M Talavera-Barber, Ronald J Teufel, Deepika Thacker, Mmekom M Udosen, Megan R Warner, Sara E Watson, Alan Werzberger, Jordan C Weyer, Marion J Wood, H Shonna Yin, William T Zempsky, Emily Zimmerman, Benard P Dreyer
Keywords: Not available
Review Adult
Chen, B; Julg, B; Mohandas, S; et. al., eLife
Published:
Journal: eLife
Abstract: The COVID-19 global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has infected hundreds of millions of individuals. Following COVID-19 infection, a subset can develop a wide range of chronic symptoms affecting diverse organ systems referred to as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), also known as long COVID. A National Institutes of Health-sponsored initiative, RECOVER: Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery, has sought to understand… Continue reading
Authors: Benjamin Chen, Boris Julg, Sindhu Mohandas, Steven B Bradfute, RECOVER Mechanistic Pathways Task Force
Keywords: United States; Humans; Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome; COVID-19; RNA, Viral; SARS-CoV-2; Disease Progression
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